Category Archives: Thurrock Museum

Libraries and Museums

Photo: Glyn Baker (Wikipedia)

The first public library in Thurrock was opened in 1893 and was located in No 1 Bank Buildings, Grays High Street. By 1902 these premises were too small and in 1903 a purpose built library partially funded by Andrew Carnegie was opened on Orsett Road. This included a local history museum. There was also a museum in Civic Square, Tilbury. With the opening of the Thameside Complex in January 1971, the library and Museum moved to their current location.

The council is proposing another move for the library and museum to the Civic Offices. There is a public consultation on the proposed move which can be see here.

The Grays Library

The Thurrock Council has plans to dispose of the Thameside complex which houses the library and museum. Here is a brief history of the library based on the museum’s heritage file.

The history of Grays Library dates back to November 1893 when the Local Government Board appointed a committee to consider establishing a Public Library Service. The first Library was situated in Grays High Street. By 1902 the Library was becoming short of space and the library committee decided to write to Andrew Carnegie, appealing for a donation towards the cost of building a new library building.

Carnegie was born in Scotland in 1835. In 1848 his family moved to the United States, and settled in Pennsylvania. When he was 65 he sold his steelworks to J.P Morgan for $480 Million and devoted the rest of his life to Philanthropic activities. One of Carnegie’s life long interests was the establishment of Free Libraries available to anyone as a means of self-education. The project was started in 1881 and he eventually spent over $56 Million and established 2,509 libraries throughout the world.

A reply on 23rd June 1902 said that Carnegie was willing to donate £3,000 provided a site could be found. Charles Seabrooke and his business partner Mr Astley of Seabrooke’s Brewery donated a piece of land in Orsett Road where the present Thameside Complex is now located. A local architect, Christopher Shiner, designed the new Library. The Countess of Warwick opened the Library on 11th November 1903. The cost of the building was £2,591.15.0. The turret clock had been presented by the school children of Grays; this clock was salvaged during demolition and is in the care of the local museum service.

Thurrock Museum: Conservation Project Complete!

Between Lockdowns the Conservation project at Thurrock Museum was completed! It was made possible thanks to support from the Land of the Fanns Community Action Fund. The Museum remains closed, but Susan Yates (volunteer at Thurrock Museum) was able to review the work. Read her report here:

Whilst Covid has undoubtedly been a bad thing some good has come out of it at least. Thurrock Museum were able to obtain the services of professional conservator Hazel Gardiner. It was hoped that at least 12 display cases would be treated by the Conservator. In fact Hazel managed to do 20.

Many of the display cases had become infected with a small bug which has now been removed, as has the cause of attracting the bug. Cleaning alone of the interiors of the display cases brightened and improved vastly the contents and the way in which they are portrayed. The woollen felt material used to line the display cases is now much brighter and the colours much stronger enlivening the displays concerned enormously. In the display case for Stone Age Axes the axes had previously been displayed attached using adhesive to a circular black backing. The adhesive was damaging the backing and making the axes insecure so it was decided to clean and remove the board and design a new display where the axes were not fixed with glue of any kind in fact the axes are displayed freestanding. In other display cases items were used that insects infesting found very tasty and as a result damage was done. This was treated and cleaned and once again conservation improved the exhibit.

Another display case that was treated contained loom weights. Unfortunately the sand they had been seated upon was the same colour as the weights and therefore detracted from the artefacts themselves. Removal of the offending detritus has allowed the weights to stand out more once again improving the display as can be seen in the photo below:

Before conservation

After conservation

In the display case for the Police Force a silver police whistle was discovered hidden at the back by other items this was cleaned and now sits gleaming at the front of the exhibit and is now very hard to miss.


In the display case illustrated above containing Bronze Age and Iron Age artefacts, at the rear can be seen a damaged pot partially reconstructed. Closer examination only possible due to Hazel’s work revealed decoration on the exhibit. It has now been decided to bring this item to the fore making its decorative work more easily visible.

What surprised a lot of people I think was the amount of damaged done by insect infestation. We all expected to see fading of the colours of the woollen backing felt. The photo below shows how the colour had faded.

Fading and insect damage

The above photo also shows the damage done to the woollen backing felt by the insect infestation. Thanks to Hazel’s hard work the infestation has now been treated and items will be displayed more effectively.

The museum has also been fortunate in being supplied with items to help prevent such outbreaks again. The photo below shows Valina Bowman Burns, whose idea it was to bring in Hazel, with some of the new conservation items. She was supported by Museum Officers Michelle Savage and Hazel Sacco.

New conservation equipment for the Museum

Thanks to backing by Valina’s boss, Stephen Taylor, this has been possible and our museum will be better for it.  Thanks also to Land of the Fanns – without whom none of this would have been possible.




Thurrock Museum is benefiting from the attention of archaeological and objects conservator, Hazel Gardiner, thanks to Land of the Fanns support. Read her report here:

Tucked away inside the Thameside complex at Grays, Thurrock Museum is a treasure house of archaeological and social history artefacts from the area. It has a wonderfully informative and comprehensive series of displays, thoughtfully and imaginatively put together in the early 1970s, with only a few alterations since. The museum remains a much-loved local attraction to this day. However, after fifty years, the displays are in urgent need of conservation attention and some sympathetic updating. This has been difficult to schedule until recently as the museum is normally open every day. Museum Officer, Valina Bowman-Burns, decided to make the most of the current closure by taking the opportunity to refresh the displays. With support from the Land of the Fanns Community Action Fund, the first steps in this process have now been made. I was delighted to be asked to work with Valina on this project.

Beginning with the displays that are most in need of cleaning and conservation intervention, I am in the process of assessing the case materials and recording the condition of each object. After such a long time on exhibition, it is likely that at least some objects will be in need of remedial work. Most case interiors have a visible dust layer and there are clear signs that insect pests have been at work in the past. Happily, this insect damage is usually minimal.

The first display case I assessed, which focuses on the Later Bronze Age, holds a group of metal and ceramic objects arranged with props: non-museum objects intended to add atmosphere and a sense of authenticity to displays. In this display case props included chicken bones (not fully cleaned), a taxidermy mouse, dried grasses, grains of wheat, and leaves. (figs. 2, 3 and 4) Not surprisingly, as a number of these additions are nutritious snacks to some insect larvae, there was evidence of pest damage. Most of the museum objects, being inorganic, were not affected.

Sadly, however, along with the wool felt case lining and some of the props, a piece of beautiful hand-woven plaid textile had proved irresistible to the pests known as woolly bears (carpet beetle larvae), that had managed to penetrate this display case. (fig. 5) The textile had numerous holes.

Using a conservation-grade vacuum cleaner, accumulated dust, dirt and pest debris was cleaned from the case materials, making an immediate and dramatic visual improvement. (figs. 6 and 7). Loose surface dust was removed from objects using a soft brush and the vacuum cleaner. Smoke Sponge, a conservation material ideal for removing fine particulate dirt, was also used as required.

All extraneous prop material that could potentially harbour pests was removed. (figs. 8 and 9) Although no active pest presence was detected, the plaid was frozen as a safeguard and will be cleaned at a later stage. Freezing organic material at minus 20 degrees for two weeks will kill any residual pests and their eggs.

In this display case the metal objects were generally stable, but the adhesive used in the reconstruction of the ceramic vessels has contracted over time, leading to a gradual weakening of the bonds holding the vessels together. This is particularly noticeable on one large vessel. Before too long this vessel should ideally be dismantled and re-bonded to ensure its ongoing life. (fig. 10)

The display case just described provides a good example of the sort of issues that are likely to be found throughout the museum. In some other display cases, objects have been adhered directly to the wool felt case lining, and there are a number of unusual materials used as supports that would not now be considered suitable. (figs. 11, 12 and 13) These include: plasticine, wax, Blu Tack, Velcro, and in one case a section of what appears to be plumbers’ PVC piping providing, with plasticine reinforcements, an internal support for a fragile Roman ceramic vessel. The use of wool felt as the primary lining material in most display cases may also need to be addressed at some point. When the museum display was put together, there was less access to conservation support than at present, so it is not surprising that unsuitable materials and questionable display methods were used, and no blame should be attached to this. In most cases such materials and methods have not harmed objects, although they would not be considered today.

The role of any conservator is not only to assess and treat objects, but also to consider all aspects of the museum environment, from the building envelope to the display cases and the materials used within them. As progress is made through the museum, information will be gathered with a view to providing advice on best practice in order to prevent or mitigate agents of deterioration and their effects. Therefore, as well as carrying out assessment, case and object cleaning and providing treatment recommendations, I aim to support my museum colleagues in their development of an effective preventive conservation strategy for the collection.